Azerbaijan declared its independence from the former Soviet Union on August 30, 1991, with Ayaz Mutalibov, former First Secretary of the Azerbaijani Communist Party, becoming the country's first President. Following a massacre of Azerbaijanis at Khojali in Nagorno-Karabakh in March 1992, Mutalibov resigned and the country experienced a period of political instability. The old guard returned Mutalibov to power in May 1992, but less than a week later his efforts to suspend scheduled presidential elections and ban all political activity prompted the opposition Azerbaijan Popular Front Party (PFP) to organize a resistance movement and take power. Among its reforms, the PFP dissolved the predominantly Communist Supreme Soviet and transferred its functions to the 50-member upper house of the legislature, the National Council.
Azerbaijan (i/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn/AZ-ər-by-JAHN; Azerbaijani:Azərbaycan[ɑzærbɑjdʒɑn]), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani:Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short border with Turkey in the northwest.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic. It was also the first Muslim-majority country to have operas, theaters and modern universities. The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, before the official dissolution of the USSR. In September 1991, the disputed Armenian-majority Nagorno-Karabakh region re-affirmed its willingness to create a separate state as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The region, effectively independent since the beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1991, is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan until a final solution to its status is found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE.
Referring to his fruitful visits with senior Iranian political, economic, and military officials, Mustafayev stressed the will of the president and the government of the Republic of Azerbaijan to develop relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran as a critical friendly, brotherly and neighboring state.
Opposition lawmakers accused Pashinyan of only inviting pro-government lawmakers and supporters to the Democracy forum ... He went on to advance his government’s policy of “peace in the region,” at a time when Azerbaijan continues to undermine all agreements that were reached following the Artsakh war.
Thousands took to the streets of Yerevan as protesters decry the potential ceding of disputed territory to Azerbaijan...Armenia lost control of several regions in and around Nagorno-Karabakh in 2020, when Azerbaijan launched a major military offensive to retake the territories.
Protesters briefly shut down the metro network in Armenia's capital on Wednesday, the metro operator said, part of growing anti-government unrest in recent weeks against possible concessions over territory disputed with neighbour Azerbaijan.
Armenia’s political opposition has regularly accused the government of preparing to return the Azerbaijani exclaves – which happen to straddle the country’s strategic north-south highway – to Azerbaijan... they claim is a government wish to hand the territory back to Azerbaijan.
For years, Azerbaijan has been one of the world’s biggest spenders on its military, building up its forces for a potential war with Armenia... Much about Azerbaijan’s ... “In Azerbaijan, defence governance mechanisms are poor and corruption risks critically high,” the report concluded.